Article Index

Can Sustainable Development Sustain Us?

Authors
Benigno E. Aguirre
Issue
August 2002
Description
This paper presents a review of Disasters by Design, the recent, influential second U.S. national assessment of research on natural and technological hazards that takes stock of the disciplinary knowledge and policy issues in the field of disasters. It identifies four analytical matters left unresolved in its central theme on the importance of sustainable development for disaster mitigation, having to do with the dual emphasis on the local and on the global, cultural change, the implicit assumptions that planners and social engineers know best, and the consensual model of politics. It also identifies some practical problems that the adoption of a sustainable development framework advocated by the report may pose for the specialty.

Catastrophe in Reel Life versus Real Life: Perpetuating Disaster Myth through Hollywood Films

Authors
Deborah S. K. Thomas, Arleen A. Hill, Susan L. Cutter, Jerry T. Mitchell
Issue
November 2000
Description
Hollywood productions continuously feature disasters and the human struggle against them. Recent entries from the disaster movie genre include films on tornadoes, volcanoes, and asteroids. This article is an exploration of how mass media, specifically the entertainment industry, conveys messages about disasters. For this paper, we examine eleven disaster films looking for five key disaster “myths” as identified by Jones (1993) that perpetuate common misconceptions about hazards. Specifically, we research whether the entertainment industry passes along these myths; we also provide an update for earlier work conducted by Quarantelli (1985) and conclude that the message regarding hazards provided through these films is often mixed and inconsistent. Hollywood’s fascination with the disaster genre, the validity of the science portrayed, and the language used to characterize the disaster are among the topics we explore between “reel” life and “real” life.

Central Social Media Actors in Disaster Information Networks

Authors
Alan Steinberg, Clayton Wukich, and Hao-Che Wu
Issue
March 2016
Description
Government agencies and media outlets traditionally have played central roles in disaster information networks. However, their hub status has slightly diminished as social media empowers others to communicate more easily. Little systemic research has identified the key actors in these new information networks. This paper examines Twitter hashtag networks during four disasters, the Boston Marathon bombing; the West, Texas fertilizer plant explosion; the Midwest spring flooding in Peoria, Illinois; and the Moore, Oklahoma tornado. Findings indicate minimal government and nonprofit involvement. While traditional media outlets still played an important role in some networks, others were more heavily shaped by influential private citizens. We examine those networks by identifying key actors and evaluating their message content and conclude by offering an initial typology for hashtag information networks and discuss directions for future research.

Challenges and Opportunities in the Disaster Organizational Setting

Authors
Neil R. Britton
Issue
November 1990
Description
Introduction to Special Issue

Child And Household Factors Associated With Fatal And Non-Fatal Pediatric Injury During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake

Authors
Megumi Kano, Linda B Bourque, Kimberley I Shoaf, Marizen Ramirez
Issue
August 2005
Description
Children are vulnerable to injury during earthquakes but little epidemiologic research has been conducted to understand risk patterns. The purpose of the study is to understand child and household factors that increased risk of injury during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. A survey of households was conducted in Golcuk, Kocaeli, 19-21 months after the earthquake. Data were extracted on children under 20 years of age. Variables included child demographics, household size, disposition of adults in the household, family preparedness, and residential building characteristics. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling were conducted. Of 615 children present during the earthquake, 38 suffered non-fatal injuries while 22 were fatally injured. Calculations of adjusted odds ratios showed that the gender and age of the child, household size, adult household members’ injury status, and extent of damage to household residence were associated with relatively higher risks of non-fatal injury to a child during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake.\r\n

Citizen Journalism as Data for Disaster Research

Authors
Hayley Watson
Issue
August 2013
Description
The “story” of a disaster is no longer simply told by the traditional media. Along with developments in communication technology, we are witnessing the desire of active citizens, via acts of citizen journalism, to be involved in telling the story of a “disaster”. Accordingly, from the perspective of disaster researchers seeking to understand how others perceive response to disaster, material created by citizen journalists provides a unique insight into the activities of members of the public following a disaster. The article begins by providing illustrations of acts of citizen journalism following acts of terrorism include the 2007 Glasgow airport attacks and the 2008 Mumbai attacks. The article then goes on to provide researchers with a methodological tool known as qualitative media analysis for the study of citizen journalism data. It will provide evidence of this methodology in action by presenting a case study of the 7th July 2005 London bombings.

Citizen Participation in Emergency Response Following the Loma Prieta Earthquake

Authors
Paul O Brien, Dennis S. Mileti
Issue
March 1992
Description
Citizen response to the Loma Prieta earthquake emergency was assessed on representative samples from San Fransisco and Santa Cruz Counties. Almost everyone in both counties personalized the disaster regardless of the amount of personal damage experiences, and about two-thirds of the public in both counties got involved in some sort of emergency response activity. The amount of main shock damage experienced had the strongest predictive value for emergency response involvement. Our finding suggest that collective identification may be necessary but not sufficient cause for collective action in response to disaster.

Citizens and Contingencies – Swedish Crisis Managers’ Views of The Public

Authors
Jennifer Hobbins and Ann Enander
Issue
November 2015
Description
Assumptions about citizens and their behaviour in a crisis situation strongly influence emergency planning and decision-making. This article therefore aims to explore municipal crisis managers’ views of citizens in relation to contingencies. We identified two dimensions in the municipal leaders’ views of the general public, illustrating how these views can be characterized by two separate stages. They embrace individual prerequisites for preparing for and dealing with contingencies, as well as characteristics of the current crisis and its effects on the citizens. The article highlights public leaders’ awareness of social vulnerability factors and demonstrates a more complex image of crisis managers’ views of the general public than has generally been depicted.

Citizens’ Emotional and Cognitive Responses to Focusing Events – An Experimental Study

Authors
Jenny Lindholm, Tom Carlson, Goran Djupsund, Joachim Hogvag and Kim Strandberg
Issue
November 2015
Description
Focusing events, i.e. crises and catastrophes, provide an opportunity for political change, learning and evaluation of governmental performance. Likewise, it is essential that citizens trust that their society can provide credence towards managing these situations. This study tests, in a controlled laboratory experiment, in what manner the origin (man-made versus natural disasters) and strength of focusing events affect the emotional and cognitive reactions of citizens. We used a 2-x-2 basic factorial design with post-test-only between-groups comparisons testing self-reported emotions, psychophysiological and cognitive reactions among the test subjects (N = 30) to four different focusing events. Our findings show that an event with a stronger degree of focus brings about more emotional and cognitive reactions than an event with a weaker degree of focus, although only among events originating from man. Also, events originating from man caused stronger reactions than those originating from nature, albeit only among events with a strong degree of focus.

Citizenship Rights and Voluntary Decision Making in Post-Disaster U.S. Floodplain Buyout Mitigation Programs

Authors
Daniel H. de Vries and James C. Fraser
Issue
March 2012
Description
Since the 1990s, the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has promoted voluntary “buyout” programs to relocate property owners out of floodplains. In this paper we evaluate perceived voluntariness of these initiatives. We use local mitigation official interviews and property owner surveys conducted in four post-disaster buyout program sites. We show that there is considerable variability in property-owner’s experience of buyout programs and their sense of voluntariness, despite high buyout acceptance rates. We find that the paradox facing program managers is that buyout participants perceive the process to be less voluntary compared to those who did not accept the offer. Because local mitigation officials simultaneously act in the interest of the government while working with flooded property owners, voluntariness is not guaranteed. Low social capital of flood victims tends to lead to situations where buyouts are successfully expedited during post-crisis, temporal “windows of opportunity” and local perceptions of voluntariness are compromised.