Article Index

Beyond Internships: Experiential Learning as a Tool for Emergency Management Education

Authors
Samantha Penta, Samantha Phillips, Amber Silver, and Emily Barrett
Issue
March 2019
Description
Experiential learning has emerged as a best practice in higher education and professional development programs. This article describes the 100-hour training requirement of an undergraduate degree program at a mid-sized public research university in the northeastern United States. The four tiers of the training program include: (1) foundational training, (2) professional development, (3) community engagement, and (4) concentrationspecific training. Each tier is assigned a minimum number of hours that students must complete in order to meet the requirements of the program. The tiered structure focuses students’ activity, ensuring that they engage in experiences that support the development of each of the content areas deemed important for student success as they transition from the academic to the professional realm. This paper illustrates a new way of integrating experiential learning into emergency management curriculum through a 100-hour training requirement, and demonstrates the benefits this type of educational experience can have for the students and the larger community. Beyond educational theory, external training opportunities professionalize students to the practical knowledge of the field and into a culture of continuous learning. It also offers the potential to serve the broader community, reflecting the value that higher education can have in their communities.

Beyond the IRB: An Ethical Toolkit for Long-Term Disaster Research

Authors
Katherine E. Browne and Lori Peek
Issue
March 2014
Description
This article argues for expanding the ethical frame of concern in disaster research from the early phases of site access to longer-term issues that may arise in the field. Drawing on ethical theory, these arguments are developed in five sections. First, we identify the philosophical roots of ethical principles used in social science research. Second, we discuss how ethical concerns span the entire lifecycle of disaster-related research projects but are not fully addressed in the initial protocols for gaining Institutional Research Board (IRB) approval. Third, we introduce the idea of the philosophically informed “ethical toolkit,” established to help build awareness of moral obligations and to provide ways to navigate ethical confusion to reach sound research decisions. Specifically, we use the work of W. D. Ross to introduce a template of moral considerations that include fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence, selfimprovement, and non-maleficence. We suggest that in the absence of a clear framework that researchers can use to think through ethical dilemmas as they arise, Ross’ pluralist approach to ethical problem solving offers flexibility and clarity and, at the same time, leaves space to apply our own understanding of the context in question. Fourth, we draw on six examples from our research studies conducted following Hurricane Katrina. Using these examples, we discuss how, in retrospect, we can apply Ross’ moral considerations to the ethical issues raised including: (1) shifting vulnerability among disaster survivors, (2) the expectations of participants, and (3) concerns about reciprocity in long-term fieldwork. Fifth, we consider how the ethical toolkit we are proposing may improve the quality of research and research relationships.

Beyond Vertical Evacuation: Research Considerations for a Comprehensive “Vertical Protection Strategy”

Authors
Lucia Velotti, Joseph E. Trainor, Karen Engel, Manuel Torres and Takumi Myamoto
Issue
March 2013
Description
Vertical protective strategy (VPS) refers to activities intended to move people to a level of elevation above a (perceived) threat within the area at risk. VPS is an important but understudied approach to providing safety, particularly in the case of short warning events, such as tsunamis and coastal floods. While extensive engineering analyses have looked at the feasibility of VPS, the social, scientific and policy analyses associated with it have only been given cursory attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by first briefly introducing VPS and then discussing the strategy in relation to shelter in-place and traditional horizontal evacuation. We then go on to highlight issues related to the adoption and implementation of VPS as a government sponsored activity. Last, we propose a research agenda that identifies areas to be further investigated.

Bio-indicators as a Measure of Social Fragility

Authors
Juan-Pablo Sarmiento, Catalina Sarmiento and Meenakshi Jerath
Issue
March 2017
Description
Disaster risk results from the interaction between hazards and vulnerabilities, but there are considerable variations in how vulnerability and its three dimensions (exposure, fragility, and resilience) are conceptualized and measured. This study demonstrates how certain bio-indicators allow an objective, direct, and efficient measurement of a population’s social fragility. Using data available for 159 countries, we selected two bio-indicators, Low Birth Weight (LBW) and Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB), and developed the Social Fragility Index (SFI). We then analysed their effect on existing vulnerability indices: the Susceptibility Index (SI) and the Prevalent Vulnerability Index (PVI). Results showed that the selected bio-indicators and particularly the proposed index are efficient in measuring the fragility of a community before a disaster, and that they could also be used to measure the social impact caused by an extreme natural event, technological disasters, population displacement/migration, armed unrest, conflict, changes in political regimes, and economic crises.

Blame Assignment in a Diffuse Disaster Situation: A Case Example of the Role of an Emergency Citizen Group

Authors
David M. Neal
Issue
August 1984
Description
Blame occurs frequently after disasters, yet, the process of blame is a neglected topic of disaster research. Our study looks at how a grassroots citizen\\'s group blamed a local company for air pollution and health problems. The blaming process directed toward the company aided in the mobilization of the citizen\\'s group but also prevented any immediate issue-oriented actions. As blame directed toward the company decreased within the group, solidarity within the group decreased. Yet, as blame decreased within the group, issue-oriented actions by the group increased. The placement of blame by the group had both positive and negative consequences for their goals. Comparing this case with other studies of blame in disaster, we found: 1) placing blame does not lead to structural changes in the social system, 2) organizations can be the focus of blame, and 3) only one target of blame can exist. In addition, we suggest that the type of disaster (diffuse or focalized, and technological or natural) may have an impact upon who or what becomes the target of blame.

Book and Film Reviews

Authors
Ronald W. Perry, Beverly A. Cigler, Charlotte A. Cottrill, Maxwell A. Cameron, James S. Nyman, Judith A. Bradbury, Daniel J. Alesch
Issue
August 1989
Description
Crisis Management: A Casebook.\r\n\r\nManaging Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives.\r\n\r\nDisasters: Violence of Nature and Threats by Man.\r\n\r\nEnvironmental Hazards: Communicating Risk as a Social Process.\r\n\r\nRisk Assessment and Management: Emergency Planning Perspectives.\r\n\r\nThe Politics of Earthquake Prediction.\r\n\r\nDisable Persons and Earthquake Hazards.\r\n\r\nSearching for Safety.\r\n\r\n

Book and Film Reviews

Authors
Ronald W. Perry, William A. Wallace, Eric K. Noji, Charles E. Faupel, Anthony Yezer
Issue
March 1989
Description
Reviews of Evacuation in Emergencies: An Annotated Guide to Research and A Guide for Emergency Evacuation Management and Operations by Ronald W. Perry Review of Terminal Disasters: Computer Applications in Emergency Management by William A. Wallace Reviews of Mass Casualties: A Lessons Learned Approach and Triage Decision Trees and Triage Protocols by Eric K. Noji Review of Race, Religion, and Ethnicity in Disaster Recovery by Charles E. Faupel Review of The Economics of Bushfires: The South Australian Experience by Anthony Yezer.

Book and Film Reviews: Airspaces.

Authors
Simon Bennett
Issue
August 2004
Description
No abstract.

Bookl Review: Clear as Mud: Planning for the Rebuilding of New Orleans by Robert B. Olshansky and Laurie A. Johnson

Authors
Carla Prater
Issue
March 2012
Description
No abstract.

Book Notes

Authors
Robert A. Stallings
Issue
March 1996
Description
Review of Insurance and Natural Disasters by Robert A. Stallings. Review of The Southern California Fires of 1993 by Robert A. Stallings. Review of Dreading the Next Wave by Robert A. Stallings. Review of The Hyatt Skywalker Disaster and Other Lessons in the Regulation of Buildings by Robert A. Stallings. Review of Renewing FEMA by Robert A. Stallings.