Article Index

Taxonomy as an Approach to Theory Development

Authors
Ralph H. Turner
Issue
November 1989
Description
Taxonomy as an Approach to Theory Development

Teaching Disaster Management Using a Multi-Phase Simulation

Authors
Tanya Buhler Corbin
Issue
November 2018
Description
This article details the development and implementation of a simulated disaster scenario for disaster policy and emergency management students. Through a coordinated effort across a disaster policy course and emergency management course, this pedagogical method was used to apply the theoretical lessons and course content to a simulation of a complex disaster event. In keeping with the FEMA Whole Community Approach, the simulation involved the full range of community members and stakeholders. Students played roles of government officials at local, state, and national levels, community members, non-profit organizations, emergency managers, and first responders working in coordination to respond to an increasingly complex disaster scenario of an extensive power outage. Detailed in this article is the process of developing and implementing the simulation, with information useful for other instructors who might implement this or similar exercises in their courses. This exercise can be adapted for multiple disciplines and courses related to disasters and emergency management.

Teaching with Cases in Disaster and Emergency Management Programs: Instructional Design Guidance

Authors
Jean Slick
Issue
March 2019
Description
There is a long history of the use of cases in teaching in post-secondary programs and some fields (e.g., law, medicine, business) have their own distinctive approach to the use of case-based learning methods. Within disaster and emergency management (DEM), which is a relatively new field of post-secondary study, there are as of yet no formally recognized approaches to the use of cases in teaching, and further there is limited research on the disciplinary characteristics of teaching practices in the DEM field. This article presents findings from a study that explored how and why cases are used in post-secondary DEM programs. The methodological approach to the study supported the development of a domain-based outcome theory that explains three different approaches for using casebased learning methods in DEM programs and the functions of cases relative to each of the different types of learning outcomes. This novel conceptual framework for teaching with cases was found to address deficiencies in existing schema for conceptualizing the use of cases in teaching.

Technology, Structure, and Culture in Disaster Management: Coping with Uncertainty

Authors
Helene Denis
Issue
August 1997
Description
This paper will concentrate on three aspects of disasters which are often interwoven, but that require careful refinement and elaboration to understand how they interact in disaster situations. These are the technological, structural, and cultural dimensions of disaster events. These three dimensions will be superimposed and illustrated with respect to technical, sociopolitical, and scientific issues which have been identified as important components of disaster management. It is argued that the notion of uncertaintv, when present in the management context, is related to the dimensions of technology, structure, and culture. The framework developed draws upon and is used to conceptuallv interconnect studies of Canadian disasters, as well as disaster events from other parts of the world.

Tepeyac: Case Study of institutional and Social Learning Under Stress

Authors
Ben Wisner
Issue
November 2003
Description
There is an anthropological and sociological literature dealing with emergent organizations in disaster situations. Less is known about the ways in which pre-existing organizations learn new skills in order rapidly to be able to provide a new range of services in a post-disaster situation. The case study of Tepeyac, an immigrant workers’ rights, social service, and cultural organization serving Hispanics in New York City, provides some preliminary insight into the flexibility of such organization and highlights the potential of other similar organizations as a community resource in disasters elsewhere in the U.S. and perhaps elsewhere in the world.

Terrorism and System Failure: A Revisited Perspective of Current Development Paradigms

Authors
Arthur Oyola Yemaiel, Jennifer Wilson
Issue
November 2003
Description
In this article we explore social vulnerability to terrorism based upon current development paradigms and the social complexities derived from our evolutionary process. We argue that highly complex systems are the essence of accelerated development as well as the possible cause of our collapse as society. System complexity in and of itself could very well be modern society’s principal vulnerability to terrorism with the possible outcome of a generalized failure resulting in a national disaster. To obtain vulnerability reduction we suggest that American society move toward a new stage of development accentuating redundancy that business and resource consolidation and the centralization of power paradigm give way to developmental strategies of decentralized power and dispersed resource allocation. We utilized the Twin Towers incident to analyze our evolutionary developmental process and the vulnerability of our complex society and to revisit the working definition of disaster in the reality of highly complex systems.

That’s a Myth! Teaching about Disaster Myths through Experiential Learning

Authors
Jeannette Sutton and Renee Kaufmann
Issue
November 2018
Description
Experiential learning theory suggests that students learn best when they experience, reflect, conceptualize, and apply newfound knowledge. In this series of exercises, students will learn about disaster myths by observing concrete examples, reflecting on them critically, and applying concepts to real world examples. By doing so, they obtain skills to assess and analyze myths about public behavior in the aftermath of a disaster.

The 1989 Student Protest in Beijing

Authors
Antony J. Taylor
Issue
November 1994
Description
An eyewitness account of events leading up to the massacre in Tienanmen Square will be described, in which the place of observational methods for gathering data, the difficulty in retaining emotional objectivity, and the role of the University vis a vis the state will be raised. The suggestion is made that such brief, dramatic and intensive experiences could be construed as disasters and brought within the framework of applied behavioral science.

The 1998 Floods in the Tambo Valley

Authors
Rebecca Monson
Issue
November 2004
Description
This paper examines the flood event of June 1998 and its effect on residents of the upper Tambo Valley, in Victoria south east Australia. While the concept of vulnerability has been widely employed to understand disasters, this case study is unique in that it adopts a long-term historical perspective of vulnerability. It shows that rather than being the result of a chance occurrence of a natural event, the 1998 flood disaster was in fact foreseeable, and the culmination of various social, political, economic and environmental pressures, some of which had existed for well over a century.

The Changing Roles and Responsibilities of the Local Emergency Manager: An Empirical Study

Authors
Steven D. Stehr
Issue
March 2007
Description
A number of observers have speculated that a “new” style of emergency management has emerged in the United States in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001. To date, there has been relatively little empirical evidence marshaled to assess this claim. This article reports the results of an on-going project designed to track how the staff of an office of emergency management in a large urban region allocate their time on a routine basis. This project began in the late 1990s allowing for a year-by-year comparison of time allotted to different emergency management functions. Among the findings reported here are that prior to 2002 emergency management staff spent the majority of their time on hazard preparedness projects but this time allocation shifted dramatically when a variety of federal homeland security grants became available to state and local governments. This shift in responsibilities may be a sign that domestic security concerns have supplanted the all-hazards approach to emergency management at the local level. But this paper argues that it may also be a product of the manner in which federal homeland security grants are administered and the dynamics of the intergovernmental structure of emergency management in the U.S.