Article Index

The Experience, Lesson and Reform of China's Disaster Management

Authors
Song Gang, Lu Jingshen, Du Gangjian
Issue
August 1992
Description
In the context employed here, disaster management refers to the administrative measures, principles, and policies enforced by governments, armed forces, enterprises, and social groups in the course of disaster prevention, relief and reconstruction.

The Family as a Life-Saver in Disaster

Authors
Christine Clason
Issue
March 1983
Description
In discussing the subject of \\"Family and Disaster\\" the implicit assumption is that the family is the \\'instrument\\' which supports the existing, societal organization and therefore the most common approach is to consider how families cope with disaster. There is confusion as to whether one is speaking about the family on an institutional level or about family units. In this paper we have tried to answer two questions: are individuals better able to cope with disaster on a large scale when living in families(units); does the individualized conjugal family unit with clear-cut divisions of labour and roles offer better chances than other family types?\r\n\r\nTo explore these questions we used the situation in Japanese camps for civilians during World War II. We reach the conclusion that it is not living in family units which gives a better chance of survival, but the ability to engage in a caring relation with other(s). The ability to adapt to changing situations, without losing one\\'s self control and a \\'fighting\\' spirit seem to be very important in order to survive. The conjugal family type prepares women much better in all respects than men.

The Federal Emergency Management System in the United States: Past and Present

Authors
Gary A. Kreps
Issue
November 1990
Description
The paper begins by providing a historical overview of wartime and peacetime emergency preparedness in the United States in terms of major historical trends and unresolved issues which preceded the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1979. With the unresolved issues serving as a historical backdrop, FEMA\\'s contemporary role in the federal emergency management system is then examined to see what progress toward their resolution is being achieved. The paper closes with a brief comment on what the historical evolution of federal emergency management in the United States suggests about what can and cannot be accomplished.

The First “A” Alert of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment: A Description of Organizational Response

Authors
Colleen Fitzpatrick
Issue
August 1994
Description
The Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment has been ongoing effort since the mid-1980s. As the first earthquake prediction officially endorsed by the National and California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Councils it has received considerable attention from earth scientists, social scientists, emergency services officials and members of the news media. One outcome of this experiment has been the development of a concerted effort to inform residents in the area of risk about their earthquake vulnerability and about what can be done to lessen the impacts of earthquakes. Involved in this effort has been the development of a comprehensive alert notification system for detecting changes in the risk and communicating those changes to emergency officials and citizens throughout the area. In October, 1992, when precursor anomalies indicated that the Parkfield earthquake might be imminent, the U.S. Geological Survey issued the first A-level alert of the Parkfield experiment. This paper depicts organizational response to this unique alert situation. Results from this case study suggest that while the alert was taken seriously by emergency and life-support organizations, it amounted to little more than an unannounced drill.

The General Trend of Sociobehavioral Disaster Studies in Japan

Authors
Hirotada Hirose, Keizo Okabe
Issue
March 1985
Description
In this article we very briefly review the history of sociobehavioral disaster research in Japan which is mostly a post 1970 undertaking. Examples of recent major studies are given. While the work has been relatively limited so far, the future appears promising.

The Great East Japan Disaster, 2011 and the Regional Newspaper: Transitions from News to Newspaper Columns and the Creation of Public Memory

Authors
Anthony S. Rausch
Issue
August 2014
Description
This paper examines post-disaster local newspaper coverage associated with the Great East Japan Disaster of March 2011. On the basis of a long-term examination of several Tōhoku disaster area newspapers, the research identifies in the coverage of the disaster a transition from multiple ‘news’ themes to a variety of thematic frames that are presented in long-term newspaper columns. The research uses a database keyword trend to establish a ‘news-based’ newspaper coverage baseline, with framing analysis identifying newspaper columns as the mode frame of longer-term disaster coverage in the local newspapers thereafter. On this basis, the specific thematic frames of these columns of three disaster area newspapers are examined. The research finds that while the newspaper columns of local newspapers reflect the specific disaster-related issues of their areas, there also emerged a column that frames the disaster more optimistically, positioning the disaster as a point of new beginning for Japan and thereby constituting a form of real-time public memory creation. The research contributes to better understanding of both local media response to large-scale disasters based on the case for Japan and proposes a new understanding of the newspaper, in the form of newspaper columns, in disaster journalism, that of public memory construction.

The Halifax Explosion and Port Arthur Massacre: Testing Samuel Prince’s Ideas

Authors
John Handmer, Joseph Scanlon
Issue
August 2001
Description
Samuel Henry Prince wrote that major catastrophes lead to change. Despite his status in the field, there have been few attempts to examine empirically Prince’s ideas about change. In this paper the authors describe a massacre in Port Arthur, Tasmania, in 1996 in which a man armed with automatic weapons killed 35 persons and injured 19 others. As a result of the massacre, changes occurred in Australian gun-control laws. The fallout from the massacre is examined in light of Prince’s thesis about change following catastrophes.

The Impact of a Natural Disaster on the Division of Labor in Twelve Guatemalan Communities: A Study of Social Change in a Developing Country

Authors
Frederick L. Bates, Greg A. Hoover
Issue
November 1985
Description
It has been hypothesized that disasters are a type of \\"intervention\\" which affect rates of social change and provide unique opportunities to observe this process by \\"compressing\\" it into a shorter time span. This paper utilizes an interrupted time series analysis to determine the effects of an earthquake on the rate and direction of change in the division of labor in twelve Guatemalan communities. The general trend for these communities (both control and experimental) is increasing complexity before the earthquake followed by accelerated growth in complexity after the earthquake. Differences between the experimental and control communities are discussed. It is suggested that the level of complexity may be important as an underlying influence on the response of a population to a disaster. In addition, changes in complexity (which were shown to occur) also warrant further study as possible influences upon these responses.

The Impact of Disaster Education on Household Preparedness for Hurricane Hugo

Authors
Susan P. Kelley, Thomas Petee, Charles E. Faupel
Issue
March 1992
Description
This article examines the impact disaster education on hurricane preparedness among residents in Charleston, South Carolina. The article examines 1. the impact of participation in disaster education programs generally 2. the impact of hurricane experience as a type of education and 3. the impact of participation in earthquake specific education programs to determine whether there is any transference of knowledge across agent types. Two indices of preparedness are used: household planning activities, and adaptive response activities. It was found that participation in some type of disaster education program is strongly related to the preparedness measures. Hurricane experience has some minimal effect on adaptive response but not on household planning. Participation in the earthquake specific education programs is not a significant predictor when controlling for other variables.

The Impact of Gender on Humanitarian Logistics

Authors
Gyöngyi Kovács, Peter Tatham
Issue
August 2010
Description
Logistics performance in the humanitarian context has been linked to gender issues in several ways. From the perspective of the beneficiary, gender-based disaster vulnerabilities and gender disparities in accessing aid have been highlighted. However, the gender of humanitarian staff in contact with beneficiaries, making purchasing decisions, and responsible for last-mile deliveries, i.e., humanitarian logisticians, also impacts on the way in which the needs of female and male beneficiaries are met. This conceptual article focuses, therefore, on the links between gender, logistics performance, and logistics skills—discussing the implications of these three areas in the humanitarian context. From this, an agenda for further research is proposed.