Article Index

The Impact of Intergovernmental Distance on Disaster Communications

Authors
Charles J. Givans, Deborah L. Steel, Llewellyn M Toulmin
Issue
August 1989
Description
Previous research into disaster communications, while fairly extensive, has been limited primarily to sociological analysis and organizational theory. This body of research, however, has not explored disaster communications in a federal, international or other multi-level governmental response system. This paper expands upon existing research to present a new theory of intergovernmental disaster communications.

The Impact of the Browning Prediction on Institutions

Authors
Judith A. Golec
Issue
November 1993
Description
An association of circumstance: the 1990 Browning Earthquake prediction and the center for Earthquake Research and Information.

The Intersection of Gender and Social Class in Disaster: Balancing Resilience and Vulnerability

Authors
Maureen Fordham
Issue
March 1999
Description
Those who experience disaster are widely regarded as an undifferentiated group, labeled “victims.” In the immediate crisis period, it is difficult for professionals to differentiate, except crudely, between varying levels of need and still carry out urgent duties and responsibilities. However, it soon becomes apparent that some are hit harder than others and that disaster are not the great levelers they are sometimes considered to be. Close examination reveals complex variations within, and not just between, social groups broadly understood as middle- and working-class. This paper examines the intersection of gender and social class in two major flood events and argues for a more nuanced appreciation of these factors, and both the conceptual and the practical level, to be incorporated throughout the disaster process.

The Inventory’s Legacy for the next Generation

Authors
Jennifer Wilson
Issue
August 1999
Description
A-5\r\nAugust 1999, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 217-221\r\nTitle: The Inventory’s Legacy for the next Generation\r\nAuthor(s): Jennifer Wilson\r\n

The Long Shadow of Disaster: Memory and Politics in Holland and Sweden

Authors
Susann Ullberg, Paul t Hart, Celesta K Bos
Issue
March 2005
Description
The Long Shadow of Disaster: Memory and Politics in Holland and Sweden\r\nAuthor(s): Celesta Kofman Bos, Susann Ullberg, Paul t Hart\r\nPages: 5-26

The Media in Disaster Threat Situations: Some Possible Relationships Between Mass Media Reporting and Voluntarism

Authors
Brenda Phillips
Issue
November 1986
Description
This research looks at possible relationships between mass media reporting and voluntarism in disaster-threat situations. The setting is a small mid-western city int he United States which was inundated by flood waters in March 1982. Data were collected through interviews with volunteers, organizational and public officials, and the media. Additionally, numerous documents pertaining to the media and volunteers are content analyzed. Observations made on-site supplement the interviews and documents.\r\nThe media are found to have some effect in accordance with the suggestions of dependency theory. The media are also found to have been one of several investigators of increased voluntarism. Conflict arising out of media depiction of the volunteer effort is discussed. Further research on media effects of voluntarism in disaster situations is suggested.

The Nature of Collective Resilience: Survivor Reactions to the 2005 London Bombings

Authors
John Drury, Chris Cocking, Steve Reicher
Issue
March 2009
Description
Accounts from over 90 survivors and 56 witnesses of the 2005 London bombings were analysed to determine the relative prevalence of mass behaviors associated with either psychosocial vulnerability (e.g. ‘selfishness’, mass panic) or collective resilience (e.g. help, unity). ‘Selfish’ behaviors were found to be rare; mutual helping was more common. There is evidence for (a) a perceived continued danger of death after the explosions; (b) a sense of unity amongst at least some survivors, arising from this perceived danger; (c) a link between this sense of unity and helping; and (d) risk-taking to help strangers. We suggest a novel explanation for this evidence of ‘collective resilience’, based on self-categorization theory, according to which common fate entails a redefinition of self (from ‘me’ to ‘us’) and hence enhanced concern for others in the crowd.

The Near Disaster at Three Mile Island

Authors
Peter S. Houts, Linda K. Byrnes, Robert W. Miller, Glenn S. Bartlett
Issue
March 1983
Description
On March 28, 1979, a serious reactor accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Pregnant women and families with pre-school age children were asked to evacuate a five mile area around the plant. Evacuation plans were developed for a twenty mile radius, although no such evacuation occurred.\r\n\r\nTelephone surveys of adults and a questionnaire survey of high school students living near Three Mile Island were carried out from May, 1979, to January, 1980. The data collected show that living near the plan (absolute or perceived proximity), younger age and lower grade level of adolescent respondent, presence of pre-school age child in the home, lower parent\\'s or adult\\'s education, and evacuation of all or part of the family were all associated with a stronger negative affective response to the accident and with the likelihood of having evacuated the area. \r\n\r\nThe behavior of individuals and families following the Three Mile Island accident parallel those occurring in an actual disaster, and extend the theoretical framework of Kinston and Rosser to include the circumstances of potential disasters.

The NORC Research on the Arkansas Tornado: A Fountainhead Study

Authors
E.L. Quarantelli
Issue
November 1988
Description
No abstract.

Theoretical and Research Articles

Authors
E.L. Quarantelli
Issue
March 1987
Description
What should we study? Questions and suggestions for Researchs about the concept of Disasters.