Article Index

Time, Knowledge, and Action: The Effect of Trauma Upon Community Capacity for Action

Authors
Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Angus, Louise K. Comfort
Issue
March 1998
Description
This article explores the relationship between time, knowledge, and action under the urgent conditions of disaster. We inquire into the conditions under which a community is able to give timely response to a catastrophic event. Such events require intergovernmental communication, coordination, and a shared knowledge base to support action. We report findings from an international, interdisciplinary study of medical response following the March 13, 1992, earthquake in Erzincan, Turkey. Data are presented from a survey of representative organizational actors who were engaged in disaster response operations and lay persons who observed the response. In the case of Erzincan, the effect of trauma, communicated across multiple ties of family, friendship, and business in the community, had a disabling effect on the community’s capacity to respond to the urgent needs of its citizens. Further, national efforts dependent upon knowledge of the community were inhibited by local trauma. We conclude that national capacity for timely, effective` response to disaster depends upon initial condition of training, communications, and infrastructure that are in place at the community level prior to the disaster.

Time, Knowledge, And Risk: Decision Making In The Aftermath Of Storm Disasters

Authors
Rolf Lidskog and Daniel Sjodin
Issue
November 2015
Description
Responses to disasters and crises are often characterized by decisions made in situations of urgency and uncertainty. Decisions are often made under time constraints and without full knowledge of the consequences of the available options. This paper investigates the role of time and knowledge in the practical governance of disasters and crises. It empirically examines the sense-making and risk governance practices developed in response to the consequences of two detrimental storms that affected a forest area in Sweden. The data were gathered in an interview study of forest advisors at a public agency, forest associations, and private companies. The analysis indicates that the actors’ adjustments to their perception of available time (time regime) and the accessibility of knowledge (desktop knowledge) explain how certain risk governing practices evolved. Thus, of greatest significance is not what is known and unknown but who knows what and when.

TMI in the Literature

Authors
Dennis Wenger, Terri Pope
Issue
March 1984
Description
A Partially Annotated Bibliography

Tornadoes Over Texas: A Study of Waco and San Angelo in Disaster and its Impact Upon the Study of Disaster

Authors
Joseph B. Perry
Issue
November 1988
Description
Tornadoes over Texas.

Toward an Explanation of Mass Care Shelter Use in Evacuations

Authors
John H. Sorensen, Dennis S. Mileti
Issue
March 1992
Description
The use of overnight shelters during evacuations is a topic of increased societal concern. Existing investigations do not provide an integrated nor consistent explanation. An assessment of existing published data lead us to conclude that many factors suggested by others are not adequate explanations for shelter use, and these include type of hazard, urban versus rural, socioeconomic status and age of evacuees are consistent explanatory concepts. Further research on this topic is needed.

Toward a Politics of Disaster: Losses, Values, Agendas, and Blame

Authors
Richard Stuart Olson
Issue
March 2000
Description
Offering exemplars from around the world, including China, Mexico, Nicaragua, and California, this paper argues that disasters must be understood and analyzed more deeply and more often as explicitly political events. The paper also argues that because politics is the “authoritative allocation of values”, the politics-disaster nexus revolves around the allocation of several important values: life safety in the pre-event period, survival in the emergency phase, and “life chances” in the recovery and reconstruction periods. The paper concludes by suggesting that the literatures on agenda control and causal stories/blame management are particularly useful points of departure for analyzing disasters as intrinsically political events.

Towards a Moral Philosophy of Natural Disaster Mitigation

Authors
Timothy Beatley
Issue
March 1989
Description
While there is often considerable discussion about the effectiveness, political feasibility, legality, and other aspects of natural disaster mitigation, moral and ethical dimensions are usually overlooked. This paper argues that the disaster planning community should begin to explicitly consider the moral foundations of public natural disaster mitigation policy. At the most basic level the key question arises: what is the extent of government\\'s moral obligation to protect people and property from natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes? While no definitive theory or position is put forth here, the author identifies several possible bases or elements of such moral theory of mitigation. Among the moral criteria considered are: utilitarian and market failure rationales; the concept of basic rights; culpability and prevention of harm standards; and paternalism. Other non-disaster moral obligations, some conflicting and some complementary, are also identified and discussed.

Towards a Theory of Economic Recovery from Disasters

Authors
Stephanie E. Chang and Adam Z. Rose
Issue
August 2012
Description
Economic recovery refers to the process by which businesses and local economies return to conditions of stability following a disaster. Its importance and complexity are being increasingly recognized in disaster risk reduction research and practice. This paper provides an overview of current research on economic recovery and suggests a research agenda to address key gaps in knowledge. Empirical studies have provided a number of robust findings on the disaster recovery of businesses and local economies, with particular insights into short- and long-term recovery patterns, influential factors in recovery, and disparities in recovery across types of businesses and economies. Modeling studies have undertaken formal analyses of economic impacts of disasters in which recovery is usually addressed through the incorporation of resilience actions and investments in repair and reconstruction. Core variables for assessing and understanding economic recovery are identified from the literature, and approaches for measuring or estimating them are discussed. The paper concludes with important gaps in the development of a robust theory of economic recovery. Systematic data collection is needed to establish patterns and variations on how well and how quickly local economies recover from disasters. Research is urgently needed on the effectiveness of resilience approaches, decisions, and policies for recovery at both the business and local economy levels. Detailed, testable theoretical frameworks will be important for advancing understanding and developing sound recovery plans and policies. It will be especially important to consider the relationship between economic recovery and recovery of the built environment and sociopolitical fabric of communities in developing a comprehensive theory of disaster recovery.

Town Watching As A Tool For Citizen Participation In Developing Countries: Applications In Disaster Training

Authors
Antonio L Fernandez, Teruhiko Yoshimura, Yujiro Ogawa
Issue
August 2005
Description
Town Watching As A Tool For Citizen Participation In Developing Countries: Applications In Disaster Training\r\nAuthor(s): Yujiro Ogawa, Antonio L. Fernandez, Teruhiko Yoshimura\r\nPages: 5-36

Traditional Families in Turkey

Authors
Cigdem Kagitcibasi
Issue
March 1983
Description
Though disasters, especially earthquakes, floods and landslides, are common in Turkey, policy making, planning, and even research have ignored their social -psychological aspects. In this paper an attempt is made to build a hypothetical model for conceptualizing disaster-related coping behavior in traditional society. It is based on individual, familial and social behavior and values, derived from research conducted in Turkey. In this model it is proposed that belief in external control, in fitting with the objective conditions, results in resignation and in the conception of disaster as inevitable. Close-knit family and community ties provide further relief and security in the face of disaster. This primary group solidarity also provides the mechanisms necessary for coping with disaster in the context of underdevelopment where formal social welfare organizations are inadequate.